PREGNANCY AND BIRTH OUTCOMES AFTER ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TREATMENT
Summary. Objective. The aim is to evaluate possible risks in the population of pregnant women, conceived by assisted reproductive methods. Methods. The study was carried out retrospectively in the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kauno klinikos in the period from 2016 to 2018. We analyzed maternity and medical history records of 427 women who were categorized into the group conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) (n=215) and control group, that consisted of randomly selected women who conceived spontaneously (n=212). Records of interest were outcomes and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and newborns, achieved from birth register, journal and medical history documents. Results. Multiple gestations were more common in the ART group and reached 37.7%, while in the control group only 10.4% pregnancies were non-singleton, p<0.001. Pregnancy related conditions, such as pregnancy hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes were not significantly different between groups, p>0.05. Placenta related conditions, such as placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum (PAS), were more frequent in ART group, p=0.004 and p=0.012 respectively. No significant difference for placental abruption or incidence of preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) between the groups was found. The incidence of fetal malformations was similar in both groups, p=0.302. Incidence of cesarean section was higher in the ART group (49.8%), p=0.016. There was no significant difference for 1 and 5 minute Apgar scores between the groups, p1<0.994, p5<0.484, but preterm newborns and small for gestational age (<10‰) newborns were more frequent in ART group, p<0.001. The incidence of large for gestational age (>90‰) newborns was significantly lower in the ART group. Conclusions. The most common risks during pregnancy that might be associated with ART’s are multiple gestations, placenta disorders, higher incidence of caesarean section, low-birth weight and preterm births.