AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AND METABOLOMICS
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an age-related macular degeneration of the central retina, often with pronounced and irreversible central vision loss. The disease usually affects people over the age of 50, although it can rarely develop in younger people. It is currently the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. AMD is a multifactorial disease and the most common environmental risk factors are aging, smoking, family history, low levels of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, and decreased physical activity. The most important pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the development of AMD have been identified: drusen formation, local inflammation, and neovascularization. Understanding and identifying early markers of disease development and progression is crucial for the diagnosis of AMD. There is growing evidence that metabolic dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of AMD. A recent and promising area of r esearch in ophthalmology is metabolomics, which can study biomarkers related to ophthalmic diseases. One of the most metabolically active tissues in the human body is the retina, so there is great hope for a metabolomics study that can be used to monitor molecular changes during the onset and progression of AMD. Identified biomarkers may provide opportunities for diagnostic at a stage of the disease where irreversible changes have not yet occurred and may even be used in the future as a tool for future treatment of AMD. In this review, we examine what is known about metabolic biomarkers changes in the retina during the development of AMD, using recent literature on AMD metabolomics. Methods for the detection of biological metabolic markers in patients with AMD, investigating tears, vitreous, and blood will also be discussed.