SOMATOFORM DISORDERS ETIOLOGY, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT. LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Simona Kušleikienė
  • Danielė Jukonienė
  • Jurgita Sinkiewicz Niewulis
Keywords: somatoform disorders, somatisation disorder, hypochondrical disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction

Abstract

Somatoform disorders are disorders, for which occurrence and course psychological factors are important. Somatisation disorder, hypochondrical disorder and somatoform autonomic dysfunction are the most common somatoform disorders. Quite often together with these disorders depression and anxiety syndromes can be found. It has been found that somatoform disorders can cause structural changes in the brain and thus affect the neuroendocrine system. When somatoform disorder develops, the patient expresses somatic complaints such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, dyspnea, heart or muscular pain, etc. These symptoms remind some somathic diseases but are not connected to them. The doctor must always rule out a somathic differential diagnosis, for that reason various tests are done, treatment is carried out, a patient is sent to specialized doctors, but no reason is found. Due to unknown diagnosis, stress makes patients even more anxious about their health which creates a vicious circle that can last for years. Multiple diagnostic tests, frequent hospitalizations, and incapacity benefits require high social security costs which are a great burden on society. The role of primary care is to isolate these patients and purposefully refer them to a psychiatrist. Each somatoform disorder has its own diagnostic criterion that makes it easy to make a diagnosis. Psychotherapy remains the most effective treatment option. 

Published
2020-03-24
Section
Literature review