CELIAC DISEASE AND TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS. LITERATURE REVIEW
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects small intestine, related with Th-1 lymphocytes hyperreaction to protein called gliadin that is found in wheat, rye and barley which causes villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and malabsorbtion. It has been found that people with celiac disease are prone to have Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), because both diseases are based on similar genetic origin. Prevalence of celiac disease among Type 1 DM patients in the world is from 5 to 16 times higher compared to an overall population. Celiac disease is usually asymptomatic in patients with Type 1 DM, but, if celiac disease is treated improperly, there is a higher risk of poor glycemic control, cardiovascular diseases and there is a greater risk for diabetes complications at younger age. Currently the common ground in diagnosing and treating celiac disease within Type 1 DM patients is still not reached. Celiac disease treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet and this treatment is also recommended for patients with these co-existing diseases, but patients with type 1 DM have to be supervised by dietary and endocrinology professionals.